– Because, since, as.
e.g: the police arrested him (because/since/as) he broke into a bank.
– Owing to, due to.
e.g: – owing to his intelligence, he passed the exam.
– Due to the bad weather, they didn’t go to Washington DC last week.
e.g: – the cause of global warming is pollution.
– global warming (is caused/due to) by pollution.
– thanks to his hard work, he passed the exam.
e.g: – Because of his laziness, hi didn’t pass the exam.
– Thanks to her beauty, she attracted the attention of all men.
– Because/since/as/for they are in love, they get married.
(+) Subject + tobe (appropriate) + V3 (Past participle) (+ by object duer)
(-) Subject + tobe (appropriate) + not + V3 (Past participle) (+ by object duer)
(?) tobe (appropriate) + Subject + V3 (Past participle) (+ by object duer) ?